2021-12-30 419 226

Mupirocin Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Isolates of National Hospital and in the Nasal Carriage of Healthy Undergraduates in Colombo, Sri Lanka

Achintha GA, Rupasena, D. S. S. D. , Pathum, S. M. D. I. , Gunasekara, C. P. , Dissanayake, D. M. B. T. , Kulathunga, K. M. H. H.
Year: 2021 Volume: 02

Introduction and Objectives : Mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly reported in many parts of the world. This study was conducted with the objective of describing high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance of S. aureus in clinical isolates and nasal carriage.
Materials and Methods : A descriptive study was conducted including 45 nasal isolates of S. aureus collected from healthy university students in Colombo and 249 clinical isolates of S. aureus from the patient specimens in National Hospital of Sri Lanka. All of the confirmed S. aureus strains were tested for methicillin resistance using cefoxitin disc (30μg). S. aureus isolates were considered methicillin-resistant if the diameter of zone of inhibition was 21mm or less (CLSI, 2017). The S. aureus isolates were then tested for mupirocin resistance. Disk diffusion method was utilized with 5μg and 200μg mupirocin discs to determine low-level and high-level resistances respectively. The criterion employed for interpretation
of mupirocin resistance was a combination of the widely accepted criterion described by Finlay, Miller, and Poupard (1997) for low-level mupirocin resistance and CLSI (2017) criterion for high-level mupirocin resistance. If both inhibition zone diameters for 5μg disk and 200μg were ≥14mm, the isolate was considered mupirocin sensitive. If 5μg disc displays <14mm and 200 μg disk displayed ≥14mm inhibition zone diameter, the isolate was considered to be mupirocin low level resistant. If there is no inhibition zone in 200μg disk, the isolate was considered as mupirocin high level resistant.
Results : From the 45 nasal carriage isolates, 33 (73%) were Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 12 (27%) were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Among the clinical isolates, majority (n=158, 63%) were MRSA while only 91 (37%) MSSA. An overall mupirocin resistance rate of 4.4% among S. aureus was observed. Low-level mupirocin resistance was observed in 3.7% Staphylococcus aureus
isolates and high-level mupirocin resistance was observed in 0.7% isolates. Mupirocin low-level and high-level resistance in MRSA isolates were 5.3% and 0.6% respectively. MSSA isolates demonstrated 1.6% (n=2) and 0.8% (n=1) mupirocin low-level and high-level resistances respectively. None of the nasal isolates were resistant to mupirocin while 6% (n=15) mupirocin low-level resistance and 0.8% (n=2) mupirocin high-level resistance was observed in clinical isolates.
Conclusion : This initial survey of mupirocin resistance among S. aureus in a country with fairly high usage of mupirocin emphasizes that although the overall mupirocin resistance is relatively low in this population, regular surveillance of mupirocin resistance remains a necessity.

Keywords
Mupirocin , Staphylococcus aureus , Nasal carriage , MRSA

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